Identifying new approaches to develop energy-saving methods and tap into new renewable energy sources is set to be the greatest challenge of the 21st Century. Thermoelectric (TE) energy is one of the approaches that offers great promise as it can be used in multiple applications for power generation and refrigeration. It can create electricity from waste heat at any scale, it can significantly improve energy efficiency at a medium industrial scale, including significantly improving vehicular weight and emissions, and it can even generate electricity or cooling at the nanoscale. For instance, it could potentially be used to convert body heat into cooling devices in clothing or to charge a cell phone. Therefore, there are extremely high hopes for this technology.